Standard Method of Test forDensity of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method AASHTO Designation: T 1. SCOP. AASHTO. 1). T – Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone. Method. 2). T – Correction for AASHTO T Section 4 and is summarized as follows: 1). Find the most up-to-date version of AASHTO T at Engineering
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Seat the base plate on the prepared surface. Drying Equipment—Stove or oven or other suitable equipment for drying moisture content samples. The apparatus described herein is restricted to tests in soils containing particles not larger than 50 mm 2 in. Miscellaneous Equipment—Small pick, chisels, or spoons for digging test hole; mm 10 in. Invert the apparatus and seat the funnel in the recess of the base plate.
Close the valve sharply, remove the apparatus and determine the mass of the g191 and the remaining sand m2. Appreciable time intervals between the bulk density determination of the sand and its use in the field may result in change in the bulk density caused by a change in the moisture content or effective gradation.
Other apparatus of similar proportions will perform equally well so long as the basic principles of the sand-volume determination are observed. Close the valve sharply, remove the apparatus and determine the xashto mass of the apparatus and sand m4.
Each sand-cone and matched base plate will also have a set of unique cone corrections and bulk sand densities. Care must be taken to avoid moisture loss during excavation.
AASHTO T, Test equipment Controls
Calculate the moisture content to the nearest 0. Calculate the mass of the sand needed to fill the container, funnel and base plate. Weigh the apparatus with the remaining sand m6 and record. Calculate the dry mass of the material to the nearest 1 g 0. The mass of the sand needed to fill the container only is determined by subtracting the aashtl of the cone correction Step 4.
Calculate the volume of the test hole to the nearest 1 cm3 0. The container shall be dimensionally approximate the largest test hold that will be dug. This relationship can be determined by dividing the in-place density by the maximum density and multiplying by Divide the mass of the sand needed to fill the container Step 4.
Calibration Container—A sturdy cylindrical container of known volume Vc. Sand—Any clean, dry, free-flowing, uncemented t19 having few, if any, particles passing the 0. Also, a balance conforming to the requirements of MClass G 2.
Note 2—Vibration of the sand during any mass-volume determination may increase the bulk density of the sand and decrease the accuracy of the determination.
To be acceptable the sand shall not have a variation in bulk density greater than 1 percent. Place the apparatus on the base plate, open the valve. Place all aashro soil in a container, being careful to avoid losing any material. Invert the sand-cone filled with sand and seat the funnel in the recess of the base plate.
Open the valve and keep the funnel at least half full with sand during filling. Soils that are essentially granular require extreme care. The base axshto is required for calibrations and testing. The valve shall have stops to prevent rotating the valve past the completely open or completely closed positions.
Note 1—The internal diameter of the container shall be equal to or slightly less than the diameter of the opening of the base plate used with the sand-cone. Position the calibration container on a clean, level, plane surface.
Open the valve fully, allow the sand to flow until the sand stops flowing Note 2.
Density of soil, sand cone to AASHTO T191
When the sand stops flowing into the apparatus, close the valve sharply and empty the excess sand Note 2. Mix the material thoroughly and secure and weigh a representative sample for moisture determination. The apparatus described here represents a design that has proven satisfactory. Dig the test hole inside the opening of the aasuto plate, being very careful to avoid disturbing the soil that will bound the hole. Determine and record the mass of the apparatus filled with sand m1 Determine the mass of sand required to fill the funnel and base plate Cone Correction.
Balances—A balance conforming to the requirements of MClass G Subtract the final mass Step 4. Place the base plate on a clean, level, plane surface. Determining the bulk density of sand DB to be used in the field test. Record the t1191 mass m5. Place the base plate on t911 calibration container Note 1. T 1.
This table shows the suggested minimum mass of the moisture content sample in relation to the maximum particle size in soil mixtures. Replace the sand removed in the funnel determination according to Section 4.
After the sand has stopped flowing, close the valve Note 2. The mass of sand required to fill the cone and base plate is calculated by the difference between aasht initial mass Step 4.
Determine the bulk density of the calibration sand sand calibration factor. The results obtained using these or aaashto rapid test methods must be corrected to the values obtained in accordance with T Calculate the dry mass of the material removed from the test hole as follows: The apparatus shall conform to the requirements shown in Figure 1.